ISSN (print) 1995-2732
ISSN (online) 2412-9003




Problem Statement (Relevance): Abrasive particles that are carried away with the blast furnace gas through double bell-and-hoppers tend to settle on the parts of the blast furnace throat, skips and other components, forming a solid deposit on the working surfaces. The presence of abrasive particles and a solid deposit on the friction surfaces can lead to an increased wear rate and affect the life of the unit. It appears to be an extremely important problem to try and find the way to reduce the blast furnace dust emission and solid deposit generation. Objectives: This article aims to look at the formation of solid deposits and at ways to reduce the amount of abra-sive particles carried with the blast furnace gas. Methods Applied: To achieve the above objectives studies were conducted that looked at the amount of blast furnace dust carried away through the gaps in double bell-and-hoppers depending on the temperature of the blast furnace gas and the furnace capacity. Originality: A relationship has been established between the distribution size of the blast furnace dust, the temperature, the clearance fit, the roughness of the contact surfaces of the bell and the hopper and the particle speed. Findings: The authors of the study estimated the total low area of the contact surfaces which provides an additional escape path for the blast furnace gas. There was a 60% increase found in the cross section of the clearance between the bell and the hopper with the surface roughness Rz = 10 μm versus absolutely smooth surfaces with the clearance fit of 0.03 mm. A corse dust (0.63 mm) travels through the gaps between the components of the double bell-and-hopper at a lower speed compared with finer particles (0.048 mm). Bigger mounting clearances lead to the blast furnace gas coming out at a higher speed. Rougher contact surfaces have a larger total cross section of the contact clearance between the bell and the hopper hindering the passage of the blast furnace gas. The temperature of the blast furnace gas has a major impact on the speed of the blast furnace dust. Thus, if the temperature of the blast-furnace gas increases from 200°С to 500°С (2.5 times), a 1.28-point increase in the speed of the blast furnace dust is observed. Practical Relevance: The reduction in the abrasive particles emission and the reduction of solid deposits can help extend the service life of the blast furnace mechanisms due to reduced wear.


Double bell-and-hopper, blast furnace dust, abrasive particles, clearance fit, surface roughness

Dmitry V. Terentyev – Ph.D. (Eng.), Associate Professor

Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, Russia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. ORCID:

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