ISSN (print) 1995-2732
ISSN (online) 2412-9003


download PDF

DOI: 10.18503/1995-2732-2022-20-4-95-101


The current materials market dictates the need for maintaining an acceptable balance of interests between producers and consumers. This is especially true when mastering the production processes of products with an increased level of consumer properties. One of the highly profitable types of cold-rolled steel products is rolled products for enameling from 08YuR steel grade (as per the Russian Standard). Consumer requirements for such products provide for the exclusion of a “fish scale” defect in the finished enameled product. In Russian practice, to assess the probability of this defect, the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) index is used as stated in the regulatory documents. At the same time, the existing quality assessment indicator for rolled steel products does not fully characterize the tendency of rolled products to develop the “fish scale” defect, which is attributed to the peculiarities of the methods for its determination, including the influence of the human factor. Scientists of Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University (NMSTU) and special-ists of PJSC Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works (PJSC MMK) proposed a new indicator of the quality of rolled steel products for enameling, namely the volume fraction of structurally free cementite, to assess the tendency of rolled products to cause “fish scales”, and developed the methods for its determination. The developed indicator contributes to forming a clear opinion on the tendency of rolled steel products to hydrogen trapping and fully correlates with the hydrogen embrittlement values. The authors determined the threshold range of such values, excluding the defect in the enameled product. The developed methodology served as a basis for identifying root causes for the “fish scale” defect and ways to minimize it, when manufacturing rolled products for enameling. In particular, when organizing the hot rolling process, new technological solutions were proposed for cooling the steel surface on the discharge roller table of a hot rolling mill. The developed new end-to-end technology for rolled steel products from 08YuR steel grade (as per the Russian Standard) ensures the yield of 99.8%.


cold rolled steel products, enameling, microstructure, properties, hydrogen trapping, quality

For citation

Golubchik E.M., Chikishev D.N. Development of a New Indicator for Assessing the Quality of Rolled Steel Prod-ucts for Enameling and Methods for Its Determination. Vestnik Magnitogorskogo Gosudarstvennogo Tekhnicheskogo Universiteta im. G.I. Nosova [Vestnik of Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University]. 2022, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 95-101.

Eduard M. Golubchik – DrSc (Eng.), Professor Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, Russia. Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. ORCID 0000-0003-3064-1311

Denis N. Chikishev – DrSc (Eng.), Professor, Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, Russia. Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. ORCID 0000-0002-9402-4032

1. Lin Y., Chiang L., Lin Y., Yen H. New approaches in understanding the effects of hydrogen trapping and the fishscaling resistance of enameled steels. Surface and Coatings Technology, 2020, 399, 126-135.

2. Zhao Y., Huang X., Yu B., Chen L., Liu X. Influence of boron addition on microstructure and properties of a low-carbon cold rolled enamel steel. Procedia Engi-neering, 2017, 207, 1833-1838.

3. Zhao Y., Huang X., Yu B., Yuan X., Liu X. Effect of coiling temperature on microstructure, properties and resistance to fish-scaling of hot rolled enamel steel. Materials, 2017, 10, 1012.

4. Liu Z., Li W., Shao X., Kang Y., Li Y. An ultra-low-carbon steel with outstanding fish-scaling resistance and cold formability for enameling applications. Met-allurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2019, 50, 1805-1815.

5. Petzold A., Poeschmann G. Emal i emalirovanie [Enamel and enameling]. Reference book. Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1990, 576 р. (In Russ.)

6. Bragina L. Glass ceramic coatings for ferrous metals protection. Proc. of 20th Intern. Enamellers Congr., 15-19 May, 2005, Istanbul. pp. 23-34.

7. Lazutkina O.R., Kazak A.K., Didenko V.V., Mirova T.V. Emalirovochnoe proizvodstvo [Enameling facili-ties]. Yekaterinburg: Ural Federal University, 2010, 127 p. (In Russ.)

8. Pagliuca S., Faust W.D., Porcelain (vitreous) enamels and industrial enamelling processes. Mantova: Tipo-grafia Commerciale, 2011, 900 p.

9. Huang X., Zhang Z., Liu X., Zhao Y., Li X. Variations of microstructure and resistance to fish-scaling of a hot rolled enamel steel before and after enamel firing. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 2021, 11, 466-473.

10. Winzer N., Rott O., Thiessen R., Thomas I., Mraczek K., Höche T., et al. Hydrogen diffusion and trapping in Ti-modified advanced high strength steels. Materi-als and Design, 2016, 92, 450-461.

11. Chikishev D.N., Golubchik E.M., Avramenko A.A., Nikitenko O.A., Potaptsev D.M., Fomin M.Yu., Strugov S.S. Study on the microstructure of samples of rolled products from 08YuR steel grade and as-sessment of its effect on hydrogen trapping to de-termine the tendency to cause the “fish scale” defect on enameled rolled products. Vestnik YuUrGU. Seriya Metallurgiya [Bulletin of South Ural State University. Series: Metallurgy], 2021, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 31-39. (In Russ.)

12. Chikishev D.N., Golubchik E.M., Nikitenko O.A., Shiryaeva E.N., Kolyada T.V. Implementation of new approaches to the production of high-quality rolled steel products for enameling. Chernaya metallurgiya. Byulleten nauchno-tekhnicheskoy i ekonomicheskoy informatsii [Ferrous Metallurgy. Bulletin of Scientific, Technical and Economic Information], 2022, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 46-52. (In Russ.)